After the initial tooling set-up has been made, study the bent part to determine what tools to adjust to make a better bend. Keep in mind the basic bending principle of stretching the material on the outside radius of bend and compressing the material on the inside of the bend. Make only one adjustment for each trial bend unless the second adjustment is very obviously needed. Avoid the tendency to first increase the pressure die force rather than adjust the wiper die or mandrel location. Start with a clean, deburred and lubed tube with the elongation properties sufficient to produce the bend. Note: There are certainly other corrections that could be made for the following problems. These illustrations are a few examples of how to “read” a bend and improve the tooling set-up.

Hump at end of bend
Tool marks on centerline of bend
Tool marks on centerline of bend in clamp and pressure die area
Wrinkling throughout bend, even extending into wiper die area
Bad mark at start of bend and over bend for 90°
Wrinkling occurring for only a portion of the bend (45° out of 90°)
Wrinkles throughout bend area with wiper and mandrel in known proper position
Excessive Collapse with or without wrinkling throughout entire bend
Mandrel ball humps
Excessive Collapse after tubing is pulled off mandrel balls
Deep scratches throughout the bend and in wiper die area
Heavy wrinkles through bend area only and linear scratches in grip area indicating clamp slippage

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